Trans-boundary Diplomatic Efforts for Papua: ULMWP, the MSG, and the Notion of Sovereignty

Introduction

Indonesia’s foreign policy has always been imbued by the free and active (bebas-aktif) doctrine ever since the concept was originally introduced by the country’s first vice president, Mohammad Hatta, in 1948 (Parameswaran, 2014). The doctrine entails Indonesia’s non-alignment to a particular axis of…